- House Shuttle Challenger Failure Research. How managed to do Probability Direction (or inadequate) play a role?
- Space Shuttle Challenger Mess Research. How have done Risk Control (or not enough) make a contribution?
- Place Shuttle Challenger Mess Examination. How managed Potential risk Direction (or scarcity of) add?
- Location Shuttle Challenger Mess Examination. How have done Risk Managers (or inadequate) play a role?
- Area Shuttle Challenger Mess Inspection. How managed Financial risk Administration (or absence of) contribute?
Marvelous points to consider for writing essays on Earth and Space
- Category: Uncategorised
- Published on Thursday, 23 June 2016 13:47
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The Bill of Rights is a term whose origin dates back to the eighteenth century. It is said that the motivation behind the drafting of the Bill of Rights was that there was a need to build a Constitutional Convection that addressed the rights of individuals especially against abuse by the King and the Queens (Gill, 2014). Therefore, on December 1791, the primary provisions of the Bill of Rights were outlined that consisted of ten amendments that later became part of the Constitution (Gill, 2014). While it initially consisted of ten provisions, the current Bill of Rights has fourteen amendments after an additional seven were added to the constitution.
Among the provisions included in the Bill of Rights in the amendments is the freedom of religion and the press as in Amendment 1. Other related revisions include the establishment of the militia in which it is outlined that a well-regulated militia has the right to bear arms and the housing of soldiers as in Amendment 2 and 3 respectively. Also included among the major sections covered is in Amendment 4 that stipulates the requirements for arrest warrants. Amendments 5 to 9 is a system of related provisions that seek to address the major loopholes in the trial system, bails, and other criminal cases (Oak Hill, 2012, pp. 1-2).
The Effect of the Bill of Rights on Criminal Justice and Corrections and on the Rights of Prisoners’
Due to the broad nature of the Bill of Rights, it is critical to evaluate the impact it has had on the criminal justice and prisoners’ rights. After an analysis of all the genres covered, it is identified that the fundamental implications are included in Amendment 4, 5, and 6 (Grabel, 2015). Also included is the Eighth Amendment that serves to ensure that trials are run in a just and fair manner to safeguard the rights of people suspected of criminal activity (Grabel, 2015).
The Fourth Amendment covers for unreasonable searches and the necessity for the search warrant before carrying out seizures within one’s property (Oak Hill, 2012, p. 2). Grabel (2015) however notes that this provision has a two-fold effect in that while it is advantageous to the suspect, it is a protective inclusion against unwarranted invasion of privacy. However, while the police are discouraged from undertaking arbitrary searches, criminal have the opportunity to destroy evidence, which again could be seen as a positive effect from a suspect’s perspective.
The Bill of Rights has also had a major outcome on prisoners’ rights through an analysis of the eighth amendment. As stated by Oak Hill (2012), it is outlined that to get out of jail, one is required to pay bail for their case to be heard on a future date. The greatest advantage that is further outlined by the Bill of Rights is that the prisoner is certain that their right to getting a fair bail charge is warranted because the constitution prevents against setting bails based on personal feelings and prejudices against the defendant (Grabel, 2015). Also included in this Amendment is the provision that prisoners have a right to be defended against cruel treatment as a form of punishment. Grabel (2015) assets that in the process of making corrections, it is considered a crime to subject a prisoner to forms of punishment that include lethal injection, torture and mutilate acts such as cutting off limbs and appendages.
On the field of criminal justice, it is provided in the Fifth Amendment that a suspect has the right to be heard in a court of law and be given the opportunity for due process. In fact, immediately upon arrest, one is reminded of the right against self-incrimination by being notified that they have the right to remain silent (Grabel, 2015). A further statement outlined in the Fifth Amendment is the fact that one has the freedom to be protected against being confined in court for a second time for the same crime after they have been proven innocent (Grabel, 2015).
The criminal justice further provides for the opportunity in which the defendant has the right to be tried by a jury of their peers. They also need to be aware that the Constitution, through the Bill of Rights, offers the opportunity for their legal representation after being made aware of the nature of charges (Grabel, 2015). Such leads ensure that even when the defendant is found guilty, they are in a position to undergo the appropriate corrective intervention and punishment that is appropriate depending on the nature of the crime they committed.
The Bill of Rights and the State
Under the stewardship of Adam Gelb as the project director and Richard Jerome as the project manager, it the National Conference of State Legislatures Sentencing and Corrections project has tried to address the challenges by states in consideration for corrections while protecting the public. Among the major aspects covered in its principles at work initiative is the need for modern sentencing techniques with the key features involving risk-based sentencing, the use of immediate sanctions, and setting minimum sentencing limits (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2015).
On risk-based sentencing, in Kentucky for example, it is noted that court involvement must ensure there is minimal recidivism where judges have the liberty to determine one’s probability of criminal behavior (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2015). In Virginia, a related mechanism for risk assessment is used whereby nonviolent offenders are identified whose appropriate corrective measure would involve community supervision rather than the costly and harsh prison sentence.
Intermediate sanctions are another major effort that is exercised at state-level under the plain principle guided by the need for community-based sentences as a substitute for incarceration. One example of such an establishment is in North Carolina whereby three sentencing provisions are outlined including prison, basic probation and another involving intermediate punishment (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2015). Thus, through its Policy Advisory Commission, North Carolina offers intermediate sanctions, treatment programs, pretrial release provisions and community-based system of corrective behavior.
Finally, another essential aspect of the application of the Bill of Rights at State level is through the provision for a mandatory minimum sentence that is especially significant for habitual offenders (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2015). In fact, currently, fifty states have embraced this necessity with the principle of three strike laws being prominent across. For example, in Texas, Florida, and Arizona, it is common that all states have embraced enhanced penalties against criminal behavior involving misdemeanors.
Avenues of Relief for Prisoners
There are two basic possibilities through which one can seek refuge after being convicted and having a sentence imposed. The writer of Essayedge review has payed attention to the two main schemes that one could utilize are direct appeals and post-conviction reviews (Michaelis, Jr., & Wulff, 2011, p. 371). By undertaking the direct appeal option, one has the freedom to include trial remedies, where motions are subjected to the convicting court or sometimes use the appel-late remedies in which indications are run in appellate courts (Michaelis et al., 2011, p. 371). The option of undergoing the direct appeals could take the format of writs of error for trial remedies and writs of certiorari in the case of appel-late remedies.
The other scheme for prisoners is through the defendant utilizing the collateral attacks o the conviction through the post-conviction review. This avenue of relief provides for the plea for a new trial based on the availability of new evidence or other statute reasons (Michaelis et al., 2011, p. 371). As it could take either the form of jurisdictional or constitutional basis, the major provisions of the post-conviction review are the harbeas corpus, coram nobis, and remedies in the nature of coram nobis (Michaelis et al., 2011, p. 372).
In summary, the Bill of Rights has undergone crucial amendments that have served to prevent the citizen from exploitation by state laws. Of special interest is the application of the Bills of Rights in the criminal department to safeguard against mistreatment of a prisoner or defendant. On its implementation at the state level, the major factors that have been of interest are risk-based sentences, the use of sanctions, and the establishment of minimum sentencing limits especially for repetitive criminals records. Finally, a prisoner could either utilize direct appeals or in case it fails, suggest a post-conviction review to challenge a sentence.
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- Published on Wednesday, 13 April 2016 06:29
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Role of Executive Branch
The Executive Branch is an arm of the State mandated by the US president to carry out its duties. The head of state implements and enforces the bills proposed by the legislature. Also, he employs the personnel in charge of State Agencies, including the cabinet. In case of his absence, the constitution allows the Vice President to act in his capacity. The cabinet secretary has the responsibility of enforcing and administering national laws on a daily basis (Aberbach & Peterson, 2006)
The Current Roles
The principal agency that protects the health of the citizens and provides essential social services is the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The agency carries out research on health, various ways of preventing disease epidemics, guarantees food, good health, and security. The department also oversees Medicare and Medicaid, which offer health assurance to everyone out of four Americans. It administers various bodies, including the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and the Food and Drug Administration. The roles of the Secretary of HHS include supervising a budget estimated at seven hundred billions of dollars and sixty-five thousand employees. There are 11 operational divisions that oversee the program of the department. They comprise 8 United States Public Health Service and 3 human service agencies (Stanton, Devaney, Farrell, & Mullock, 2015)
How the Role has changed over Time
In 1798, lawmakers created programs and agencies that would handle issues relating to health. The primary purpose was to help the sick and physically challenged seamen. The Bureau of Chemistry was established in the Agriculture Department under the administration of President Abraham Lincoln so that it could deal with matters that were related to food. The action resulted in the establishment of the Food and Drug Administration some decades later. The Public Health Service was developed after the 20th Century (1902). Later on, the Congress implemented an Act of the Pure Food Drugs. The rule was to authorize the government to screen the food health and medicine safety. The creation of the Indian Health Service followed in 1921 and then the National Institute of Health in 1930.
According, in 1935, the State implemented the Social Security Act. In 1938 the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act was approved by Roosevelt and Congress to facilitate the development of FDA. In the subsequent year (1939), the Federal Security Agency Act was developed by Roosevelt and passed. It ensures the convergence of Federal activities in health, education and social insurance fields under one cabinet authority (Sabatino, n.d ). The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare replaced the Federal Security Agency in 1953. The licensing of polio vaccine that had been made by Jonas Salk was validated in 1955, leading to eradication of the crippling disease. The Migrant Health Act was passed by the Congress in 1962 to support clinics that used to serve workers in the agricultural sector. The Medicare and Medicaid programs were created in 1965 to provide a broad range of healthcare services to millions of Americans (Miles, 2012).
The forecast of the Executive Branch
The body’s duty has been changing over time, depending on new developments, especially the emergence of unknown diseases. The research department has been active to find new ways of dealing with current situations. Currently, there are various health conditions that have been declared a disaster such as HIV and Cancer. Thus, there is a possibility that the executive branch will come up with a department in the future to specifically deal with such disasters.
Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster Exploration. How did Hazard Leadership (or deficit of) contribute?
- Category: Room or Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster Research
- Published on Wednesday, 12 August 2015 10:38
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Mechanized problem emanating from human being error was the biggest reason why the place Shuttle Challenger exploded and disintegrated midair. The aircraft disintegrated hardly seventy a trio of moments into its journey (Mannan, 2014). The most important instigator for those very first explosion and disintegration was the O-ring machine which had been in place (McNeese, 2003). It happens to be fairly perplexing to comprehend that there were originally preliminary challenges of over-all viability using the O-jewelry with the craft. Health specialists enjoyed set forth their reservation concerning all round viability of these technique. However, the NASA managers saw it prudent not to address these concerns prior to the flight that culminated in the deaths of the seven crew members.While the blast was an imminent happening, the demise belonging to the team regular members used to be not. The problem in their O-diamond ring platform instigated a sequence result that culminated contained in the exploitation of your art. Health professionals have postulated by investing in time, the O-diamond ring can have malfunctioned. Assigned this understanding, there happens to come the problem of crew basic safety. Prior to the start up, NASA previously had reviewed the different potential get away device with which the art could well be outfitted (Tkatchova, 2011). There are anxieties that there is a need for the team to eject of the create in case there is fail to function properly.
Spot Shuttle Challenger Failure Exploration. How do Associated risk Managing (or decrease in) contribute?
- Category: Spot Shuttle Challenger Failure Exploration
- Published on Thursday, 16 July 2015 09:08
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Technical malfunction emanating from our problem was the main reason why the room Shuttle Challenger disintegrated and exploded midair. The plane disintegrated seldom seventy some minutes into its air travel (Mannan, 2014). The key instigator on the basic disintegration and explosion was the O-diamond ring computer which has been established (McNeese, 2003). It is actually rather perplexing to appreciate there happen to be first challenges of the over-all viability through the O-jewelry in art. Health experts received inserted forth their reservation within the in conclusion viability about the application. However, the NASA managers saw it prudent not to address these concerns prior to the flight that culminated in the deaths of the seven crew members.As the blast was an imminent occurrence, the deaths with the staff participants were being not. The fault within O-band software instigated a sequence reaction that culminated in a deterioration of create. Industry experts have postulated by using time, the O-ring could possibly have malfunctioned. Particular this realization, there unfolds the issue of team basic safety. Ahead of the introduce, NASA experienced looked into the diverse future get away from system that the art would be equipped (Tkatchova, 2011). There are considerations there could be a requirement of the staff to eject from your create in case of breakdown.